카탈루냐 분리독립 지도자들에게 중형이 선고됐고, 주민들이 거리로 나섰다

SAN SEBASTIAN, SPAIN - 2019/10/14: Protesters banging pans with spoons during the demonstration.
Hundreds of people have demonstrated in San Sebastian for the independence of Catalonia and against the sentencing of imprisoned Catalan leaders. (Photo by Javi Julio/SOPA Images/LightRocket via Getty Images)

스페인 대법원이 2017년 카탈루냐 분리독립 주민투표를 이끌었던 지도자들에게  최대 징역 13년형을 선고하자 이에 반발하는 카탈루냐 주민들의 대규모 시위가 이어지고 있다.

바르셀로나 공항은 마비됐고, 고속도로가 차단됐으며, 시내 광장에는 카탈루냐 깃발을 든 시위대가 모여들었다. 곳곳에서 시위대와 경찰의 충돌도 빚어졌다.

스페인 대법원은 14일(현지시각) 정부가 불법으로 규정했던 카탈루냐 분리독립 주민투표를 강행한 혐의로 재판에 넘겨진 카탈루냐 정치 지도자 12명 중 9명에게 ‘선동’ 혐의를 적용해 징역 9년에서 13년에 달하는 중형을 선고했다. 네 명에게는 공금 유용 혐의도 인정됐다. 3명에게는 상대적으로 가벼운 혐의가 적용돼 벌금이 선고됐다.

오리올 훈케라스 전 카탈루냐 자치정부 수반은 가장 무거운 징역 13년형을 선고 받았다. 최대 25년형에 처해질 수 있는 ‘반역’ 혐의는 적용되지 않았지만 여전히 중형에 해당한다.

카탈루냐 자치정부 의회 의장으로 있던 카르메 포카델에게는 징역 11년6개월이 선고됐고, 자치정부 전 외무장관과 노동장관, 대변인 등에게는 12년형이 선고됐다. 나머지 주요 전직 각료들과 시민단체 활동가들에게도 9년 이상의 실형이 선고됐다. 

대법원은 또 기소 위기에 처하자 벨기에로 도피한 뒤 ‘자발적 망명’ 생활을 하고 있는 카를레스 푸지데몬 전 자치정부 수반을 상대로 EU 체포영장(EAW)을 새로 발부했다. 스페인 법원은 2018년 7월 송환이 거부되자 체포영장을 철회한 바 있다. 

대법원의 판결이 발표되자 바르셀로나를 비롯한 카탈루냐 지역 곳곳에서는 분노한 시민들의 시위가 벌어졌다. 바르셀로나에서는 시내 주요 간선도로가 시위대에 의해 점거됐고, 카탈루냐 곳곳의 기차 선로와 도로도 시위로 통행이 중단되거나 부분적으로 막혔다. 

특히 이날 밤 바르셀로나 공항에서는 메인 터미널 점거를 시도하는 시위대를 경찰이 막아서는 과정에서 물리적 충돌이 빚어졌다. 경찰이 시위대를 향해 곤봉을 휘두르는 장면이 포착된 영상이 소셜미디어에 공유됐고, 100여편의 항공기가 결항됐다. 

카탈루냐의 상징 중 하나인 축구팀 FC바르셀로나는 ”투옥은 해법이 아니다”라는 공식 입장을 냈다.

Thousands of manifestants in Girona colapsed today the highway AP7 in Salt. This was an action to protest for the judgement of the catalan politicians condemned between 13 and 9 years of prision for the referendum of 2017. (Photo by Adrià Salido Zarco/NurPhoto via Getty Images)People carry and wear Esteladas (Catalan separatist flag) during a protest after a verdict in a trial over a banned independence referendum, in Girona, Spain, October 14, 2019. REUTERS/Juan MedinaSAN SEBASTIAN, SPAIN - 2019/10/14: Protesters hold flags during the demonstration.
Hundreds of people have demonstrated in San Sebastian for the independence of Catalonia and against the sentencing of imprisoned Catalan leaders. (Photo by Javi Julio/SOPA Images/LightRocket via Getty Images)Placa Catalunya of Barcelona full of protesters  during a protest following the sentencing of nine Catalan separatist leaders on October 14, 2019 in Barcelona, Spain. Spain's Supreme Court has sentenced nine Catalan separatist leaders to between nine and 13 years in prison over their role in the 2017 Catalan independence referendum. (Photo by Pau Venteo/NurPhoto via Getty Images)BARCELONA, CATALONIA, SPAIN - 2019/10/14: An independence flag is being wrapped around one of the popular sculptures of women in Plaza Catalunya during the demonstration.
After knowing the sentence of sedition and embezzlement issued by the Spanish courts with sentences between 9 and 13 years in prison for the leaders of the independence process in Catalonia, thousands of protesters have concentrated on the streets awaiting the first mass action. (Photo by Paco Freire/SOPA Images/LightRocket via Getty Images)BARCELONA, SPAIN - OCTOBER 14: People take part in a protest following the sentencing of nine Catalan separatist leaders on October 14, 2019 in Barcelona, Spain. Spain's Supreme Court has sentenced nine Catalan separatist leaders to between nine and 13 years in prison over their role in the 2017 Catalan independence referendum. (Photo by Alex Caparros/Getty Images)Protesters gather outside Lledoners jail in support of the jailed Catalan separatist leaders, in Sant Joan de Vilatorrada, north of Barcelona, Spain, October 13, 2019. REUTERS/Jon NazcaBARCELONA, SPAIN - OCTOBER 14: Highway to the El Prat Airport is seen as protesters took to the streets in Barcelona, Spain on October 14, 2019 after Spain's Supreme Court sentenced 9 Catalan separatist leaders to between 9 and 13 years in jail for sedition over the failed 2017 independence bid. (Photo by ADRIA PUIG/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images)Protesters clash with Spanish policemen on the highway leading to El Prat airport in Barcelona on October 14, 2019 as thousands of angry protesters took to the streets after Spain's Supreme Court sentenced nine Catalan separatist leaders to between nine and 13 years in jail for sedition over the failed 2017 independence bid. - As the news broke, demonstrators turned out en masse, blocking streets in Barcelona and elsewhere as police braced for what activists said would be a mass response of civil disobedience. (Photo by Pau Barrena / AFP) (Photo by PAU BARRENA/AFP via Getty Images)BARCELONA, SPAIN - OCTOBER 14: People stage a protest at El Prat Airport in Barcelona, Spain on October 14, 2019 after Spain's Supreme Court sentenced 9 Catalan separatist leaders to between 9 and 13 years in jail for sedition over the failed 2017 independence bid. (Photo by ADRIA PUIG/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images)Protesters clash with Spanish policemen outside El Prat airport in Barcelona on October 14, 2019 as thousands of angry protesters took to the streets after Spain's Supreme Court sentenced nine Catalan separatist leaders to between nine and 13 years in jail for sedition over the failed 2017 independence bid. - As the news broke, demonstrators turned out en masse, blocking streets in Barcelona and elsewhere as police braced for what activists said would be a mass response of civil disobedience. (Photo by Pau Barrena / AFP) (Photo by PAU BARRENA/AFP via Getty Images)BARCELONA, SPAIN - OCTOBER 14: Barricades are seen at Barcelona Airport as people take part in a protest following the sentencing of nine Catalan separatist leaders on October 14, 2019 in Barcelona, Spain. Spain's Supreme Court has sentenced nine Catalan separatist leaders to between nine and 13 years in prison over their role in the 2017 Catalan independence referendum. (Photo by Alex Caparros/Getty Images)BARCELONA, SPAIN - OCTOBER 14: Police watch as protestors block the Barcelona Airport access in a protest following the sentencing of nine Catalan separatist leaders on October 14, 2019 in Barcelona, Spain. Spain's Supreme Court has sentenced nine Catalan separatist leaders to between nine and 13 years in prison over their role in the 2017 Catalan independence referendum. (Photo by Alex Caparros/Getty Images)BARCELONA, SPAIN - OCTOBER 14: A flight info screen is seen at the Barcelona Airport as thousands of protestors block the access in a protest following the sentencing of nine Catalan separatist leaders on October 14, 2019 in Barcelona, Spain. Spain's Supreme Court has sentenced nine Catalan separatist leaders to between nine and 13 years in prison over their role in the 2017 Catalan independence referendum. (Photo by Alex Caparros/Getty Images)BARCELONA, SPAIN - OCTOBER 14: Passengers strand at the Barcelona Airport as thousands of protestors block the access in a protest following the sentencing of nine Catalan separatist leaders on October 14, 2019 in Barcelona, Spain. Spain's Supreme Court has sentenced nine Catalan separatist leaders to between nine and 13 years in prison over their role in the 2017 Catalan independence referendum. (Photo by Alex Caparros/Getty Images)Protesters clash with Spanish policemen outside El Prat airport in Barcelona on October 14, 2019 as thousands of angry protesters took to the streets after Spain's Supreme Court sentenced nine Catalan separatist leaders to between nine and 13 years in jail for sedition over the failed 2017 independence bid. - As the news broke, demonstrators turned out en masse, blocking streets in Barcelona and elsewhere as police braced for what activists said would be a mass response of civil disobedience. (Photo by Pau Barrena / AFP) (Photo by PAU BARRENA/AFP via Getty Images)BARCELONA, SPAIN - OCTOBER 14: Police clash with protestors following the sentencing of nine Catalan separatist leaders on October 14, 2019 in Barcelona, Spain. Spain's Supreme Court has sentenced nine Catalan separatist leaders to between nine and 13 years in prison over their role in the 2017 Catalan independence referendum. (Photo by Alex Caparros/Getty Images)Protesters clash with Spanish policemen outside El Prat airport in Barcelona on October 14, 2019 as thousands of angry protesters took to the streets after Spain's Supreme Court sentenced nine Catalan separatist leaders to between nine and 13 years in jail for sedition over the failed 2017 independence bid. - As the news broke, demonstrators turned out en masse, blocking streets in Barcelona and elsewhere as police braced for what activists said would be a mass response of civil disobedience. (Photo by Pau Barrena / AFP) (Photo by PAU BARRENA/AFP via Getty Images)Protesters clash with Spanish policemen outside El Prat airport in Barcelona on October 14, 2019 as thousands of angry protesters took to the streets after Spain's Supreme Court sentenced nine Catalan separatist leaders to between nine and 13 years in jail for sedition over the failed 2017 independence bid. - As the news broke, demonstrators turned out en masse, blocking streets in Barcelona and elsewhere as police braced for what activists said would be a mass response of civil disobedience. (Photo by LLUIS GENE / AFP) (Photo by LLUIS GENE/AFP via Getty Images)

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2017년 10월, 카탈루냐 자치정부는 스페인 정부가 ‘위헌’으로 규정했던 분리독립 주민투표를 진행했다. 정부가 경찰을 투입해 투표소 주변을 봉쇄하는 바람에 투표는 파행을 겪었다.

투표율이 43%에 머문 채 종료된 투표의 결과는 분리독립 찬성이 92.01%, 반대가 7.99%였다. 이후 자치정부는 중앙정부와의 협상을 추진했으나 당시 마리아노 라호이 총리는 논의 자체를 거부했다.

결국 자치정부 의회는 독립을 선언했고, 스페인 정부는 자치정부의 권한을 일시적으로 박탈하고 자치정부 수반 등 각료들을 해임하는 특단의 조치로 대응했다. 독립운동을 이끌었던 이들은 체포됐고, 카탈루냐의 독립선언은 헌법재판소에서 무효 판정을 받았다. 이후 실시된 조기 선거에서 분리독립 찬성파가 승리하면서 다시 정권을 잡았다.

이날 대법원의 결정으로 당시 주민투표를 주도한 정치 지도자들에 대한 법적 절차는 모두 마무리 됐다. 그러나 이번 판결은 다음달에 실시될 조기총선에 적지 않은 영향을 미칠 것으로 보인다.

현 자치정부 수반이자 ‘강경 독립파’인 킴 토라는 대법원의 판결은 ”불공정하고 비민주적”이라며 시민들에게 거리로 나서 달라고 요청했다. ”우리는 카탈루냐 공화국의 길로 나아가겠다는 우리의 10월1일(주민투표) 결의를 재확인한다.”

훈케라스 전 수반도 ”우리는 그 어느 때보다 더욱 강해져서 돌아올 것”이라며 지지자들을 독려했다.

한편 지난 7월 카탈루냐 자치정부가 실시한 여론조사에서 독립 찬성 반대 여론은 48.3%로 찬성 의견(44%)를 근소하게 앞섰다.